Pages

Friday, October 31, 2014

How I created two images with the same MD5 hash

I posted the following images the other day which although looking totally different have exactly the same MD5 hash (e06723d4961a0a3f950e7786f3766338) .


The images were just two I lifted from the web in fact I could have chosen any image or indeed any arbitrary data and created a collision with it.

Why is this surprising?

MD5 was designed as a cryptographic hash function. These are supposed to possess the following 3 properties as per wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptographic_hash_function#Properties)

  • Pre-image resistance
    Given a hash h it should be difficult to find any message m such that h = hash(m).
  • Second pre-image resistance
    Given an input m1 it should be difficult to find another input m2 such that m1 ≠ m2 and hash(m1) = hash(m2).
  • Collision resistance
    It should be difficult to find two different messages m1 and m2 such that hash(m1) = hash(m2). Such a pair is called a cryptographic hash collision

The two images above clearly demonstrate that MD5 lacks the final property. MD5 is broken as a cryptographic hash function.

To search though all possible MD5 values is 2128 operations which is massive. To be in with a good chance of finding a collision would take ~  264 operations which is again far too big for normal computing.

How did I create the images?

This type of collision is has been termed a chosen prefix collision. In this case the image data is the prefix or to be more exact the internal state of the MD5 algorithm after processing the image is. You can't see the added binary data at the end of jpeg images as it is preceded with an End Of Image JPEG marker.

Chosen prefix collisions for MD5 were first successfully shown in 2007 in this paper http://www.win.tue.nl/hashclash/ChosenPrefixCollisions/The attack uses iterations of differential analysis of MD5. The first successful differential analysis was demonstrated by Xiaoyun Wang in her 2005 paper How to Break MD5 and Other Hash Functions.

In a previous post I used an improved version of this differential path to create two PHP files with the same MD5 hash. Where those files differed by only a few bits and the data before the collision had to be identical. In a chosen prefix collision the data preceding the specially crafted collision blocks can be completely different.

The chosen prefix collision attack works by repeatedly adding 'near collision' blocks which gradually work to  eliminate the differences in the internal MD5 state until they are the same. Before this can be done the files must be of equal length and the bit differences must be of a particular form. This requires a brute force 'birthday' attack which tries random values until two are found that work, it does however have a much lower complexity than a complete brute force attack.

If the attack sounds complicated to do in practice fortunately Marc Stevens has created framework for automated finding of differential paths and using them to create chosen pre-fix collisions. It is available at https://code.google.com/p/hashclash/ . It is intended mainly as a research tool but there is a GUI and pre-built binaries for windows available. I chose to run it on linux, however, using a bash script which can automate the repetitive steps needed. 

Here are the MD5 states following each successive block (these are unpadded versions of MD5 algorithm). 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The first line is the state after processing the original images where the two hashes are unrelated. The second line shows the state after padding to equal length and the addition of the 'birthday' bits. As you can see the first four bytes of the hash are the same. Each of the next nine lines shows the hashes gradually converging until they are there are no differences. The last hash is different from the one calculated on the whole image as that one includes padding.

The image below shows the bit differences between the above hashes a '.' indicates they are the same a '1' indicates a difference.




I ran HashClash on an AWS GPU instance. I cannot say with any certainty that this is the most efficient or cheapest option but it seemed to work reasonably quickly. In particular the 'birthdaying' step took much less time than I had expected. It finished in roughly 1hr originally this step had an estimated complexity of 249 compression function calls. In his article Marc Stevens gives an estimate of 2 days for creating a complete collision on a PS3 in 2007. I found that I was able to run the algorithm in about 10 hours on an AWS large GPU instance bringing it is at about $0.65 plus tax.

I faced a few problems with the code as published and had to make some changes to the bash script and some of the C++ code related to saving the collisions. I don't know if the windows binaries that are published work any better as this seems to be where effort has most recently been expended. If anyone wants too know the changes I made let me know.

So I guess the message to take away here is that MD5 is well and truly broken. Whilst the two images have not shown a break in the pre-image resistance or second pre-image resistance, I cannot think of a single case where the use of a broken cryptographic hash function is an appropriate choice.

It was a chosen prefix collision attack similar to this that was used to produce a counterfeit ssl certificate used to sign the Flame malware as Microsoft and pass itself off as a Windows update.

What Next?

Well once you have two colliding files you can easily create a third. You just take the output of the first files and a third with any data you want file and use it as the starting point for another chosen prefix collision. I may do this and would welcome image suggestions.

Marc Stevens has also published a tool for detecting files which have been processed in this way. Running this tool over either of the files can detect that collision blocks have been added.

Update

I successfully created a third collision.

187 comments:

  1. Are image md5 hashes actually used for encryption? I had thought their utility was for de-duplication and the function seems reasonably powerful for that purpose. If one had a library of 500,000 images or even a few million, the hash key should reveal if a new image picked at random form some external source was already in the image store.

    I am currently planning to upgrade a fairly large image store using this technique to reduce the redundancy in the images which have been collected for the past 15 years and may have quite a few duplicates in them.

    ReplyDelete
  2. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  3. India eData Solutions provides Ecommerce Image Processing Services, Ecommerce Products Updating Services, 3Ecommerce Image Processing Services for E-commerce Industry at lowest rates in all over world. we have expert team for Outsource 3dCart product listing Project.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Get the Best Bulk Product Upload Services From Us With the drastic facelift that the retail sector has seen in the recent past, the internet gas become the hub for most of the small, medium as well as large scale businesses that are involved in the same.The ecommerce has seen a monumental growth prospective over the last couple of years and the trend is expected to remain the same for the foreseeable future as well. In this regard, what concerns the businesses and the online retail outlet is the data entry aspect. Tech data entry India provides a number of products and services to cater to the Amazon Bulk Product Listing Services.

    ReplyDelete
  5. High profile elite escorts in Chennai available for escort services in Chennai.

    ReplyDelete
  6. The Best Escort woman independent Chennai Escorts Service. It provides best services from others. If you went contact us visit here.
    Chennai Escorts

    ReplyDelete
  7. this problem is related to the graphics device driver you decides to use (pdf to png, etc.).

    ReplyDelete
  8. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Nice Blog With Full of Knowledge
    Thanks For Sharing.....
    Our Quickbooks Support Phone Number is available 24*7. Our Team solves any sort of problem occurring while utilizing the software. Looking for Quickbooks services? Contact us. Our experts will assist you to fulfill your accounting needs. The solutions are accurate and time-saving.
    Quickbooks Payroll Support Phone Number

    ReplyDelete
  10. Nice Blog With Full of Knowledge
    Thanks For Sharing.....
    Our Quickbooks Support Phone Number is available 24*7. Our Team solves any sort of problem occurring while utilizing the software. Looking for Quickbooks services? Contact us. Our experts will assist you to fulfill your accounting needs. The solutions are accurate and time-saving.
    quickbooks pos support phone number

    ReplyDelete
  11. This content was really helpful. The way you arranged every detail you gave was super cool.
    “Find daily opportunities to apply what you have jobs plus” Only this made my year.
    Thanks for sharing! you can also apply online recruitment
    jobs
    Recruitment
    Job Past Qustions
    Contact Us


    ReplyDelete
  12. MD5 is great way to create images. Lovely. literato es

    ReplyDelete
  13. Very good blog! Do you have any tips for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own website soon but I’m a little
    lost on everything. Would you suggest starting with a free platform like
    Wordpress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely overwhelmed ..
    Any tips? Thanks a lot! I am extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the
    layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog
    like this one nowadays.. Thanks..

    ReplyDelete
  14. Very good blog! Do you have any tips for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own website soon but I’m a little
    lost on everything. Would you suggest starting with a free platform like
    Wordpress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely overwhelmed ..
    Any tips? Thanks a lot! I am extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the
    layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog
    like this one nowadays.. Thanks..

    ReplyDelete
  15. Very good blog! Do you have any tips for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own website soon but I’m a little
    lost on everything. Would you suggest starting with a free platform like
    Wordpress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely overwhelmed ..
    Any tips? Thanks a lot! I am extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the
    layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog
    like this one nowadays.. Thanks..

    ReplyDelete
  16. Very nice post, thank you admin for sharing this post.
    Adobe Photoshop CC Crack

    ReplyDelete
  17. I have been exploring for a bit for any high quality articles or blog posts in this kind of space . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this web site. Studying this information So i am glad to show that I have a very excellent uncanny feeling I discovered just what I needed. I such a lot unquestionably will make sure to do not disregard this website and give it a look regularly. Unique Dofollow Backlinks

    ReplyDelete
  18. What to do to get rid of Verizon email not working?

    There are good chances that the antivirus or even add-ons might be the reason behind this error as these programs can interfere with the sending and receiving procedure of Verizon emails, which can further cause the Verizon email not working today.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Hi! I hope you are doing well. In case you are facing any difficulty in managing your accounts, then go for QuickBooks.
    Moreover, if you encounter any error in this software, dial QuickBooks Customer Service Phone Number (888)-807-0601 and get your query resolved quickly.

    ReplyDelete
  20. Hey! Nice Blog. Keep up the excellent work.
    QuickBooks is a popular accounting software; however, sometimes it’s working is often hindered by QuickBooks Error 3030.
    To get solutions for such issues, dial QuickBooks Customer Service Phone Number Oklahoma (888)-497-2598 and get assistance from the experts.

    ReplyDelete
  21. In addition it enables you to work from anywhere at any point of that time.
    It is possible to contact us at QuickBooks Customer Support Phone NumberConnecticut 18882040556 , just in case you ever face any difficulty when using this software.

    ReplyDelete
  22. Dial QuickBooks Support Phone Number 209-330-5117 to know more about the features and tools of QuickBooks software.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Our support, as covered by QuickBooks Support Phone Number California USA (209)-330-5117, includes all the functional and technical aspects pertaining to the QuickBooks Enterprise.
    They include all QuickBooks errors encountered during the running of QuickBooks Enterprise and all issues faced during Installation, update, while the backup of QB Enterprise.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Our support, as covered by QuickBooks Support Phone Number Georgia USA (855)-933-9371, includes all the functional and technical aspects pertaining to the QuickBooks Enterprise.
    They include all QuickBooks errors encountered during the running of QuickBooks Enterprise and all issues faced during Installation, update, while the backup of QB Enterprise.

    ReplyDelete
  25. Hi! I hope you are doing well. In case you are facing any difficulty in managing your accounts, then go for QuickBooks.
    Moreover, if you encounter any error in this software, dial QuickBooks Customer Service and get your query resolved quickly.

    ReplyDelete
  26. Hi! If you need any technical help regarding QuickBooks issues, dial QuickBooks Support Phone Number Ohio 888-903-0715 for instant help.

    ReplyDelete
  27. A lot more peoople must read his and understand this siode of thhe story.
    I was surprised that you're not more popular since you definitely possess the gift. 토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  28. Gerçek ağustos böceklerinden ahududu şerbeti instagram takipçi satın al alçak gönüllü çünki aldanabilme yeteneği var beğeni satın al. alt bölüm Almanlaştırma ve karşıtı instagram beğeni satın al aracı banka aptallaşabilmek avcı hattı avunulmayın.

    ReplyDelete
  29. her çeşit plastik çember üreten firma.
    kameralı sesli canlı sohbet sitesi.
    ankara açık dişçi 7/24

    ReplyDelete
  30. https://www.behance.net/reedisttechnology/
    https://www.storeboard.com/reedisttechnologiesnagpur
    https://www.webwiki.com/reedist.com
    https://articlescad.com/reedist-technologies-nagpur-188530.html
    https://maps.mapmyindia.com/eloc/4Z700W
    https://www.onfeetnation.com/profile/ReedistTechnologies
    http://www.authorstream.com/Inforeedist/
    https://vimeo.com/reedisttechnology

    ReplyDelete
  31. Thank you for another informative blog. Where else could I get that kind of info written in such a perfect way?
    파칭코사이트인포

    ReplyDelete
  32. I am sure this piece of writing has touched all the internet visitors, its really really pleasant post on building up new webpage.
    슬롯머신

    ReplyDelete
  33. Found your post interesting to read. I can’t wait to see your post soon. Good Luck for the upcoming update.
    룰렛

    ReplyDelete
  34. Super site! I am Loving it!! Will return once more, Im taking your sustenance in addition, Thanks. 카지노사이트존

    ReplyDelete
  35. Thanks for your time on putting these all together.Your blog has a lot of valuable information .
    온라인카지노
    카지노사이트
    스포츠토토


    ReplyDelete
  36. Very useful post. This is my first time i visit here. I found so many interesting stuff in your blog especially its discussion. Really its great article. Keep it up Feel free to visit my website; 먹튀검증가이드

    ReplyDelete
  37. Really appreciate this wonderful post that you have provided for us. Great site and a great topic as well I really get amazed to read this. It's excellent. Feel free to visit my website; 카지노사이트링크

    ReplyDelete
  38. I will be very happy to discover this kind of post very useful personally, since it consists of great deal of info. I usually prefer to read the top quality content material and also this factor I discovered in your soul submit. Thanks for sharing. Feel free to visit my website; 카지노사이트위키

    ReplyDelete
  39. Thanks and keep sharing such valuable updates through your side. You can also visit:
    Cetak Paper Bag Murah
    Print A0, A1, A1 Jakarat Timur

    ReplyDelete
  40. Your blog is really nice. Its sound really good

    카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  41. Hi, your blog is very cool, lots of interesting posts, I loved it!!!
    It's great to know that there are competent professionals like you!!!
    스포츠토토

    ReplyDelete
  42. I was actually captured with the piece of resources you have got here. Big thumbs up for making such wonderful blog page!

    VISIT NOW: 온라인카지노

    ReplyDelete
  43. I am really enjoying reading your well written articles. It looks like you spend a lot of effort and time on your blog. I have bookmarked it and I am looking forward to reading new articles. 스포츠토토탑

    ReplyDelete
  44. Hey friend, it is very well written article, thank you for the valuable and useful information you provide in this post. Keep up the good work! FYI, Pet Care adda
    Credit card processing, why i am an atheist pdf,10 lines on Lawyer in English

    ReplyDelete
  45. During gameplay, when Super Stake is in effect Holds and Wild symbols, which substitute for all symbols, are added to the reels. If a player lands a stack of Wild symbols, those reels automatically Hold for the next spin. The Super Stake feature is only an option when four games are played. 실시간바카라

    ReplyDelete
  46. If you are battling to structure your paper for Australian Law Assignment, you will find the definite answer at our Australian Law Assignment Help platform. Great Assignment Helper provides you the 360degree support required to develop premium quality assignments worthy of fetching excellent grades. Our experts are very qualified and highly experienced dedicated academicians renowned for their command over the subject. Despite being the best service provider out there, our prices are always reasonably cheap and affordable.

    ReplyDelete
  47. Your blog is amazing, one of the most beautiful blogs I have seen. Thank you for this wonderful article.
    Also, follow the best porn topics through the following titles:
    سكس
    ايجي سكس
    سكسي

    ReplyDelete
  48. Hey friend, it is very well written article, thank you for the valuable and useful information you provide in this post. Keep up the good work! FYI, german shepherd growth chart , Credit card processing, Home Body by Rupi Kaur PDF Download , PV Sindhu Essay in English in 500+ Words

    ReplyDelete
  49. This blog is really amazing, thank you.
    Watch exciting Arab porn sites through the following addresses.
    صور نيك
    سكسي
    افلام نيك

    ReplyDelete
  50. Chile is home to almost 17.6 million people while its Superintendencia de Casinos de Juego (SCJ) regulator recently noted that this population can currently access around 900 iGaming sites and platforms featuring a combined market valuation in the region of $150 million. 바카라사이트

    ReplyDelete
  51. Our Law Assignment Help expert is ready to complete your requirement. They have the sure assurance to take over your subject requirement and provide the same solution as you’re ever expected.

    ReplyDelete
  52. Biitnewdelhi computer institute comes from the Best computer course in east delhi. You can get the best computer classes from our best and trainees. You can visit to our center on this address A-115 , First Floor , Near Panna Sweet, Shakarpur, Vikas Marg, Laxmi Nagar, Computer Institute, Opposite Metro Piller No. 33, Delhi, 110092 or can contact with us through this phone number 9311441524. You can also mail us on this given Email id biitnewdelhi@gmail.com.

    ReplyDelete
  53. Cambridge English Academy provides you coaching for ielts, OET, PTE, in which you are also provided with study material, notes, in which you do not need to pay any extra fees and courses are given to you with highly educated teacher and affordable price. And your dreams are fulfilled. study abroad consultants in noida city is also available

    contact for demo
    visit website = https://www.cambridgeenglish.org.in/ielts-delhi.ph
    call for enquiry =9667728146

    ReplyDelete
  54. https://comprarepatentediguide.com/comprare-la-patente/
    https://comprarepatentediguide.com/dove-e-piu-facile-prendere-la-patente/
    https://comprarepatentediguide.com/patente-di-guida-legittima/
    https://comprarepatentediguide.com/patente-b/
    https://comprarepatentediguide.com/comprare-patente-b/
    https://comprarepatentediguide.com/comprare-patente-b-napoli/
    https://comprarepatentediguide.com/patente-a/
    https://comprarepatentediguide.com/patente-internazionale/
    https://comprarepatentediguide.com/

    ReplyDelete
  55. Leading supplier if UHF reader in Gulf Middle East. https://www.tacsllc.com/uhf-readers.htm

    ReplyDelete
  56. Very nice app. Love the ability to add the overlaysounds (fire, soothing sleep music waves, birds, storms etc) with the music. My grand-babies fall asleep to it with 10 mins. Thanks developers

    ReplyDelete
  57. very quality publish. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wanted to mention that i have in reality enjoyed browsing your blog posts. In the end i’ll be subscribing for your feed and that i desire you write once more soon! ----am i able to simply now say any such remedy to get any person who in reality is aware of what theyre discussing online. You certainly learn how to deliver a problem to mild and bring it critical. The weight loss program actually need to examine this and respect this side from the tale. I cant suppose youre no more well-known simply because you absolutely offer the present. I have study your article, it's miles very informative and beneficial for me. I appreciate the precious statistics you offer in your articles. Thank you for posting it.. Easily, the article is clearly the nice subject matter in this registry associated difficulty. I in shape in along with your conclusions and will eagerly stay up for your subsequent updates. Just pronouncing thanks will not simply be enough, for the fantasti c lucidity for your writing. I'm able to immediately grasp your rss feed to stay knowledgeable of any updates. I really like viewing net websites which realise the charge of handing over the awesome beneficial useful resource free of rate. I simply loved reading your posting. Thanks! There is no doubt i'd absolutely price it after i study what's the concept about this newsletter. You did a nice job. An outstanding percentage, i simply with all this onto a colleague who had previously been undertaking some research within this. And that he the fact is offered me breakfast absolutely because i uncovered it for him.. right here------------- i gotta bookmark this website it seems very beneficial very helpful. I enjoy analyzing it. I fundamental to analyze more on this situation.. Thank you for the sake theme this marvellous put up.. Anyway, i'm gonna join your silage and i desire you post again quickly. I am curious to find out what weblog machine you're utilising? I’m having some minor protection issues with my state-of-the-art internet site and that i would like to locate something extra comfortable. Thank you a bunch for sharing this with anybody you surely realize what you are speakme approximately! Bookmarked. Please additionally are searching for recommendation from my site =). We could have a link exchange agreement between us! That is a remarkable inspiring article. I am quite a good deal thrilled with your excellent work. You put surely very beneficial facts.. Wow, what an superb pronounce. I found this an excessive amount of informatics. It's miles what i used to be attempting to find for. I'd as quickly as to vicinity you that absorb keep sharing such kind of data. If sensible, thank you. I'm honestly playing analyzing your well written articles. It looks like you spend quite a few time and effort for your blog. I've bookmarked it and i am looking ahead to reading new articles. Preserve up the good paintings. Incredible! I thanks your weblog put up to this rely. It's been useful. My blog: the way to run quicker--------there is lots of different plans that resemble the precise laws you acknowledged underneath. I will preserve researching on the thoughts. Extremely helpful information particularly the last element i care for such information a lot. I was seeking this unique statistics for a completely long term. Thank you and excellent luckextremely helpful information specifically the ultimate part i take care of such data plenty. I was seeking this particular facts for a completely long time. Thank you and top success 먹튀검증업체

    ReplyDelete
  58. hiya! Quality stuff, do keep me posted whilst you put up again some thing like this! Great put up.. Glad i got here throughout this searching ahead to percentage this with every person right here thanks for sharing . You have done a remarkable job on this article. I have just stumbled upon your blog and enjoyed analyzing your blog posts very a lot. Thanks for the useful data. Wonderful article with extremely good idea! Thank you for this kind of treasured article. I actually appreciate for this incredible statistics.. I’m extremely impressed together with your writing abilities and additionally with the format for your blog. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  59. normally i do not examine article on blogs, but i want to say that this write-up very forced me to attempt to achieve this! Your writing fashion has been amazed me. Thanks, quite excellent article. woah! I’m in reality playing the template/subject matter of this website. It’s easy, but powerful. Quite a few instances it’s difficult to get that “best balance” among first rate usability and visible appearance. I have to say you’ve performed a splendid task with this. Additionally, the weblog masses terrific short for me on opera. Fantastic weblog! I just wish to offer a massive thumbs up for your tremendous facts you’ve were given right here in this put up. I’ll be coming lower back once more for your website for lots extra speedy. Took me time to read all of the remarks, however i really enjoyed the object. It proved to be very useful to me and i am positive to all the commenters here! It’s always first-rate when you can not handiest be informed, however also entertained . I experience extremely joyful to have visible your site web page and count on any such big range of all of the greater enticing instances perusing here. A great deal preferred once more for every one of the factors of interest. Thank you for giving me useful information. Please preserve posting accurate information inside the destiny i will go to you often. Thank you . 놀검소

    ReplyDelete
  60. . I love how you watched into a terrific human.. Thanks for shared this with us. Outstanding task for publishing this sort of useful net website online. Your net log isn’t best beneficial but it's miles additionally truely creative too. There tend to be no longer many those who can surely write no longer so easy posts that artistically. Maintain the fine writing . Very informative article. For my web web page to generate relevant site visitors which key word ought to i select, method a way to decide any key words effectiveness are you able to endorse me? My net web page is set consultancy for commercial enterprise. Thank you . A few virtually amazing paintings on behalf of the proprietor of this net website , perfectly outstanding articles . I latterly came across your weblog and had been reading alongside. I concept i would go away my first remark. I don't know what to mention except that i've loved analyzing. Satisfactory weblog. I can keep travelling this weblog very regularly. Simply admiring your work and questioning the way you managed this blog so nicely. It’s so excellent that i can not manage to pay for to not undergo this treasured information each time i surf the internet! I am glad to locate this put up very beneficial for me, as it contains lot of statistics. I usually choose to examine the excellent and satisfied i discovered this aspect in you submit. Thanks 먹튀놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  61. i'm commonly to blogging and that i truly respect your content frequently. This content has truely peaks my hobby. I can bookmark your web website online and keep checking workable information. Satisfactory put up. I study some thing harder on awesome blogs normal. Maximum typically it's miles stimulating to peer content material off their writers and use a little there. I’d want to apply a few with all the content on my weblog whether you don’t mind. Natually i’ll offer you a hyperlink at the net weblog. Many thanks sharing . I genuinely did now not realize that. Learnt some thing new nowadays! Thank you for that. There a few thrilling points over time here but i don’t realize if i see them all middle to heart. There exists a few validity however let me take hold opinion until i investigate it in addition. Excellent put up , thanks and now we need greater! Included with feedburner on the same time -----i’m curious to find out what blog platform you are using? I’m experiencing some minor security troubles with my present day website online and i’d like to discover something more relaxed. Do you have got any answers? I’d have were given to speak to you right here. Which isn’t some aspect i do! I enjoy analyzing an article that ought to get humans to suppose. Also, thanks for permitting me to comment! This sort of message always inspiring and that i opt to examine first-rate content, so satisfied to locate proper region to many right here within the submit, the writing is simply great, thanks for the post. Genuinely like your net website online however you need to test the spelling on pretty a few of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and that i in locating it very bothersome to tell the truth however i’ll virtually come again once more. Useful statistics on topics that plenty are interested on for this high-quality submit. Admiring the time and effort you positioned into your b!.. You have a very best format for your weblog. I want it to apply on my web site too ,what i don’t understood is in fact how you’re not without a doubt lots extra well-appreciated than you may be proper now. You are very intelligent. You comprehend thus drastically in terms of this rely, produced me in my opinion accept as true with it from numerous varied angles. Its like women and men don’t seem to be interested until it's far some thing to do with woman gaga! Your individual stuffs fine. Always cope with it up! This changed into novel. I want i ought to study each put up, but i must go returned to work now… however i’ll go back. Very first-rate submit, i truely love this internet site, preserve on it 꽁머니

    ReplyDelete
  62. i in my opinion use them my favored minis for almost everything. Now and again i in reality draw wow gold online in your private home genuinely due to the fact. They may be sooooo fashion not to mention correct! Notable beat ! I would love to apprentice at the same time as you amend your web site, how can i subscribe for a blog site? The account aided me a acceptable deal. I have been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided bright clean idea . I like the precious records you provide to your articles. I'm able to bookmark your weblog and take a look at again here often. I am pretty positive i’ll examine plenty of new stuff right right here! Properly luck for the next! 메이저사이트

    ReplyDelete
  63. notable submit i have to say and thank you for the information. Schooling is absolutely a sticky situation. However, continues to be most of the leading topics of our time. I appreciate your publish and look ahead to greater. i am for the first time right here. I discovered this board and i in finding it simply useful & it helped me out a lot. I'm hoping to present something again and assist others including you helped me. I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as lots as this one. I mean, i comprehend it was my choice to study, but i definitely notion you have got some thing interesting to mention. All i hear is a gaggle of whining approximately something that you may restoration if you werent too busy looking for attention. I've read your article; it is very informative and beneficial for me. I appreciate the treasured information you offer to your articles. Thanks for posting it. Your content material is nothing brief of superb in many ways. I suppose this is engaging and eye-starting material. Thank you a lot for caring about your content and your readers. This is a fantastic article, given so much information in it, these sort of articles keeps the customers interest in the internet site, and keep on sharing extra ... Right good fortune . Extremely good info! I latterly got here throughout your weblog and were studying along. I concept i might go away my first remark. I don’t realize what to mention besides that i've 메이저놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  64. thank you! I research some thing new and tough from here. It'll constantly be exciting to read content from different authors and exercise a little some thing from different websites. I would like to suggest you go to our article it presents you information. It can enjoy any age of peoples. Fortnite has various skins and avatars to make gaming intresting. Examine my weblog and get these skins totally free. Experience this blog. This is my first time i go to right here. I found such a lot of unique stuff in your weblog, particularly its dialogue. From the heaps of comments on your articles, i guess i'm now not the most effective one having all of the amusement here! Keep up the coolest paintings. I have been which means to jot down some thing like this on my website and you have given me an concept. 안전놀이터홍보

    ReplyDelete
  65. I'm trusting a nearly same nice paintings from you later on besides. I predicted that could thank you for this goals! Grateful for sharing. Beautiful goals! Fairly useful submit ! There is a sizable degree of records right here that could allow any business initially a fruitful lengthy variety casual conversation marketing campaign! Acknowledges for paper this kind of useful composition, i stumbled beside your weblog besides decipher a confined announce. I need your method of inscription.. Thank you for taking the time to talk about this, i sense strongly approximately it and love getting to know more in this topic. If feasible, as you gain understanding, could you mind updating your blog with greater facts? It's far extremely useful for me 메이저놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  66. your post is beneficial to get some a hit recommendations to lower weight appropriately. You have got shared different decent pictures of something very similar. I'd want to thanks for sharing those hints. Truly i'm able to attempt this at home. Keep to refresh greater honest recommendations like this. Fascinating point for a blog. I have been scanning the net for entertainment best and occurred upon your web page. Astounding post. Tons obliged a ton for sharing your perception! It's far top notch to see that some organization definitely put in an exertion into managing their sites. I will make certain to go back once more actual quickly. This is very thrilling content! I've very well enjoyed analyzing your factors and have come to the conclusion which you are right approximately lots of them. You are top notch. Recognizes for paper this type of beneficial composition, i stumbled beside your weblog besides decipher a limited announce. I need your approach of inscription... There to all people, here every body is sharing such getting to know, so it is essential to see this website, and that i used to go to this weblog daily . Thank you for selecting out the time to speak about this, i feel brilliant about it and love analyzing extra in this topic. It's miles extremely useful for me. Thank you for one of these precious assist again. 먹튀검증사이트

    ReplyDelete
  67. your article were given me thinking about some thing. Who will we touch if we need anesthesia quick? I have heard there are some cell offerings on line, and now i understand which of these services is pleasant at their task. I am glad my buddies told me approximately them. Wow! Such an fantastic and useful post that is. I truely genuinely like it. It's so correct and so exquisite. I'm simply surprised. I am hoping which you retain to do your work like this inside the future also. Fantastic dispatch! I'm certainly getting apt to over this info, is truly neighborly my friend. Likewise notable weblog right here amongst most of the expensive data to procure. Reserve up the useful technique you're doing right here. Wow, what's extraordinary article. It's far precisely what i were trying to find. i would love to inform you please keep sharing those type of information. If feasible, thank you. The writer has inspired me with the best high-quality work here. I'll ensure that i percentage this article with as many humans as i can. I suppose it is crucial to elevate cognizance approximately this situation. The most effective manner to achieve this is through sharing. Genuinely, this text is genuinely one of the very first-rate in the history of articles. I am a antique ’article’ collector and i on occasion examine a few new articles if i discover them interesting. And i found this one pretty charming and it ought to move into my collection. Excellent paintings! That is my first time i visit here. I found so many enjoyable stuff in your weblog, mainly its discussion. From the lots of feedback for your articles, i wager i'm not the simplest one having all the leisure right here! Preserve up the good work. I've been meaning to write down some thing like this on my internet site and you've got given me an idea. better than ordinary blog submit and accurate first-rate content, this become a brief substance for me and all of us. You ought to maintain sharing any such substance. I suppose that is a elegant article, and the content material published is super. This content will assist me to complete a paper that i've been operating on for the closing 2 weeks. It was a hard 2 weeks, however i am glad the work is accomplished now. 토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  68. it is a great web site post with out fail. Not too many humans could in reality, the manner you simply did. I'm impressed that there may be so much information about this challenge that has been uncovered and you’ve defeated yourself this time, with a lot nice. Accurate works! Thank you a group for sharing this with absolutely everyone you without a doubt realize what you're speakme approximately! Bookmarked. Please also are trying to find recommendation from my web page =). We should have a link trade settlement between us! You make such a lot of superb points right here that i examine your article multiple instances. Your perspectives are according with my very own for the maximum element. This is amazing content in your readers. 먹튀사이트

    ReplyDelete
  69. very exceptional article, i enjoyed studying your publish, very pleasant proportion, i want to twit this to my followers. Thank you!. I appreciate this text for the properly-researched content material and tremendous wording. I were given so worried on this fabric that i couldn’t prevent studying. I am impressed together with your paintings and ability. Thank you so much. Amazingly accommodating post. This is my first time i go to right here. I found such an in depth quantity of charming stuff on your blog particularly its change. Without a doubt its unheard of article. Keep it up. This is a fantastic website! I"m extremely content with the feedback!. 먹튀폴리스주소

    ReplyDelete

  70. awesome and nice information, thanks for sharing.
    durga chalisa lyrics in hindi

    ReplyDelete
  71. ielts coaching in noida
    IELTS is associate degree West Germanic language take a look at that's required of foreign students and employees United Nations agency would like to review or add a rustic wherever English is that the primary language of communication. The uk, Australia, New Zealand, the us, and North American country ar the foremost common nations wherever IELTS is approved for university applications.

    to take a demo
    website = https://cambridgeenglish.org.in
    call service = 9667728146

    ReplyDelete
  72. Thanks for sharing – perfect tips for me as I have been planning to start my own blog.
    fake plants australia

    ReplyDelete
  73. It has been an article that has been described in the best way I have ever read. Thank you admin

    Yalnizlik Sözleri

    ReplyDelete
  74. the information is very useful to me and thanks for this & i am happy after consuming a valuable etha

    ReplyDelete
  75. If sbcglobal email not working on your phone or computer. you need to check the user account or password. most probably, the user account details are incorrect. that's why it won't connect to the internet.

    ReplyDelete
  76. Whenever you are unable to access the sbcglobal email account. you need to check the username or password. it means, something is wrong with the user account. here are the guide to get that fixed.
    Sbcglobal email not working

    ReplyDelete
  77. This is the official website for cake she hit different Cakedisposablescarts.com we do ship worldwide and we have bulk orders for affordable prices thanks.


    cake she hits different

    paradise og cake

    jedi juice cake

    cake crunch berry she hits different

    cake carts jedi juice

    mimosa cake she hits different

    cake paradise og

    cake disposable she hits different

    trap queen cake cart

    jedi juice cake strain

    unicorn cake she hits different

    cake paradise og disposable

    cake carts she hits different

    kiwi blueberry strain

    mind wrap cake

    cake she hits different carts

    cake she hits different disposable carts flavors

    cake she hits different disposable flavors

    unicorn cake carts

    alien candy cake disposable

    she hits different cake carts

    ReplyDelete
  78. I figure this article can be enhanced a tad. There are a couple of things that are dangerous here, and if you somehow managed to change these things, this article could wind up a standout amongst your best ones. I have a few thoughts with respect to how you can change these things. 메이저놀이터


    ReplyDelete
  79. If you're having problems managing homework and regular studies, hire Homework helper Malaysia to have your homework completed by qualified academic writers at a moderate cost. in order for you to be able to focus more on your studies.

    ReplyDelete
  80. Hey,

    Thanks for sharing.

    We Offers the best Roofing Services in Guelph, Ontario Canada. Check our deals;

    Roofing Company Guelph | Roof Installation Guelph | Roof Repair Guelph | Roof Replacement Guelph

    Visit our website for free consultation.

    ReplyDelete
  81. Hey friend, it is very well written article, thank you for the valuable and useful information you provide in this post. thesis writing services

    ReplyDelete
  82. Exciting online earning site We would like to be a part of the success of all gamblers. superslot เครดิตฟรี

    ReplyDelete
  83. A collection of interesting free slots, you can play free slots via the web. There is no charge for any service at all. Play ambbet

    ReplyDelete
  84. A day in the life of U.S. Army Rangers assigned to 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, as they hone the skills บาคาร่า

    ReplyDelete
  85. Joker123 online game camp that has a simple game play system to make it easier for players to understand. ambbet

    ReplyDelete
  86. Our promotion winbigslot every week and every month, especially free credit giveaway activities, which will be organized in rounds. ambbet

    ReplyDelete
  87. A website that has an automatic deposit and withdrawal system because there are many บาคาร่าออนไลน์

    ReplyDelete
  88. women, being overweight or obese isn’t just about carrying around a few extra pounds. Obesity has been linked to a number บาคาร่าออนไลน์

    ReplyDelete
  89. Coffee tends to help slow the risk of death and help slow aging. But should drink coffee in moderation, should not drink pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  90. Slot games are online slots. Slot online is the latest mobile game that has been adjusted. สมัครสมาชิกสล็อต pg

    ReplyDelete
  91. Many privileges, promotions for all customers which nowadays have internet given to everyone so that anything more comfortable more than going in pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  92. playing slots games It will help you then. able to win online slots games more easily สล็อตxo

    ReplyDelete
  93. Free credit, slots, magic siege, free giveaway, 24 hours a day AMBGiant.com, a website that collects online slot games pgslot เว็บตรง

    ReplyDelete
  94. can overcome that It's not just relying on free credits. Still need different techniques. to come and help pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  95. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  96. There are more than 100 games to play. Bet-withdraw money via automatic system. Check 24 pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  97. If there is a bad internet signal, it is not recommended to play. because of having a bad internet signal may cause twitching สล็อต

    ReplyDelete
  98. 1. Use to cheat at the main base only. They may try to play the game to play the challenge, not suitable and slotxo

    ReplyDelete
  99. Story Guardian Wizard game, amb guardian wizard, slot game, if talking about Airy Potter, many people may be followers of the movie. สล็อตออนไลน์

    ReplyDelete
  100. If we do not like cheats, let us try a good way. these are compatible where we will introduce each sexybacarat

    ReplyDelete
  101. Both automatic systems allow customers to earn money quickly. All customers can access it. สมัครสมาชิกสล็อต pg

    ReplyDelete
  102. Try to play and like to apply for membership later. no obligation Freedom to choose as you like sexybacarat

    ReplyDelete
  103. For customers who are interested in the game and want to apply for pgslot, AMB can apply for membership. And friends can สมัครสมาชิกสล็อต pg

    ReplyDelete
  104. Dance, fun, exciting, because the interesting thing in this game is firing bullets The shooting pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  105. Online game camp, pgslot, a direct website, is hot with a live stream. aspect of entertainmen slotxo

    ReplyDelete
  106. Online game camp, pgslot, a direct website that is hot with a strong liveOnline game camp, pgslot, a direct website that is hot with a strong live superslot

    ReplyDelete
  107. Apply first, then make a deposit of the required amount. will receive a bonus from us 100% amb

    ReplyDelete
  108. ney upfront but the pay off is much better over time than if you used your life experiences in order to achie pgslot เว็บตรง

    ReplyDelete
  109. Use an interactive system Many times faster than transferring Popular applications joker123

    ReplyDelete
  110. In terms of auspiciousness, such as a beckoning cat, it is believed that It is something that can help bring money, gold and fortune to come. In our house, it is not difficult amb

    ReplyDelete
  111. Do not force to continue playing when losing. should take a break In the online slots spinners know that. This is considered a taboo that every online slot player should be able to do. pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  112. 985 online slots The game in the hearts of many people. that may have just started Want to have a game that can be used to relieve stress only But it turned out to be playing and getting real money. pgslot เว็บตรง

    ReplyDelete
  113. probably can't To live this long This camp has a variety of games, including slots games and fish shooting games. big pay สล็อต

    ReplyDelete
  114. there are still many games in the Joker family that are ready for everyone to experience, but the game Which one suits you best? pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  115. slots games, direct web, main web with us, web slots that do not go through agents like สล็อตxo

    ReplyDelete
  116. There are still many promotions and bonuses waiting for players. Today we come to recommend. สล็อต

    ReplyDelete
  117. its symbolic nature Can go back to the Edo period of Japan. Legend has it that a cat beckoned. ambbet

    ReplyDelete
  118. Even though covid is already an endemic disease But if we get stuck Of course, it has to be quarantined for 5-10 days anyway. Of course, lost money from work, not pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  119. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  120. The used multiplier is destroyed and the larger multiplier is tiled from the right. Double your winnings สล็อต

    ReplyDelete
  121. without having to transfer money back and forth can use the same account
    Recommended website pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  122. Slots, online games, slots on mobile, top-up-withdraw via automatic system
    24 hours service, 100% safe and secure. pgslot เว็บตรง

    ReplyDelete
  123. Along with the buy free game feature, great value increases your chances of winning cash prizes. amb

    ReplyDelete
  124. Whether it's the bonus win rate or free spins that most players are looking for in the most coveted SLOTXO website. pgslot เว็บตรง

    ReplyDelete
  125. Sign up today and receive a new member promotion immediately. Get the most worthwhile promotion pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  126. Slots, online games, mobile slots, top-up-withdrawals via automatic system, 24 hours service, 100% stable and safe. pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  127. It is one of the alternative channels that are considered very interesting, another way to answer the question pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  128. There are many styles to choose from. Complete range.
    Available every day, players can bet. AMBKING

    ReplyDelete
  129. slots online slots Top up-withdraw via automatic system, able to search 24 hours a day, 100% safe and secure. pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  130. The office combines slots from enormous big camps into the website. There are slot games. pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  131. Important Do not download the app. For installation, you can come to our website and login to play in the easiest and most convenient way. ambslot

    ReplyDelete
  132. waste space not eating memory easy access Supports 3G/4G/5G phone signals, SLOTXO ONLINE games, new styles, latest updates ถ่ายทอดสดบอลวันนี้

    ReplyDelete
  133. Deposit 15, get 100 baht, popular slots promotion for low-investment people. can play AMBKING

    ReplyDelete
  134. QuickBooks is available to automate and streamline all the operations of businesses. If you have any doubt About this Software then You can get answers to all your Quickbooks questions by dialing Quickbooks Customer Support Number+1 855-729-7482

    ReplyDelete
  135. For all your accounting needs, Dial Quickbooks Customer Support Phone Number+1 773-516-5910 and get quick solution

    ReplyDelete
  136. Thanks for sharing this useful Content .We have best Quickbooks Expert For any solution call our team at
    Quickbooks Customer Support Number+18554287237

    ReplyDelete
  137. Thanks for sharing amazing blog. QuickBooks also offers great customer service If you're looking for a reliable and affordable QuickBooks accounting software, then dial Quickbooks Customer Service 1 855-604-1500

    ReplyDelete
  138. Thanks for sharing this informative post. If you need help with your Quickbooks account, you can call
    Quickbooks Customer Service +18554287237

    ReplyDelete
  139. Quickbooks Customer Service is best option to connect with their customers so you should dialing +1 855-675-3194 Nevada which is always ready tp solve your problems

    ReplyDelete
  140. Nice Blog. If you need help with your business you should dial at Quickbooks Expert t immediately. You can easily connect by dialing Quickbooks Customer Service +18559773297,NJ

    ReplyDelete
  141. Thank you for sharing such as information ! Quickbooks is most famous software in this world which manage your business task properly but if you facing some problemsthen you can help for Quickbooks Customer Support +1 877-755-5046

    ReplyDelete
  142. Choose a game to bet on. Because online slots games today There are many for us to choose from. pgslot

    ReplyDelete
  143. played slots website, whether Is PG SLOT , SLOTXO , JOKER GAMING , considered a game slotxo

    ReplyDelete
  144. In which if you do not want to complicate the selection of games, bettors can choose to play pgslot เว็บตรง

    ReplyDelete
  145. I am very inspired to read this article. This article is full of knowledge and information for all of us. Keep sharing!
    uncontested divorce in va

    ReplyDelete
  146. Buy NCLEX without Exam
    Buy SSN
    buy US Driver’s License

    ReplyDelete
  147. KLE University, also known as KLE Academy of Higher Education & Research (KAHER), is a private deemed university located in Belagavi, Karnataka, India. It was established in 2006 by the KLE Society, a charitable organization founded in 1916. KLE University is a multi-disciplinary university that offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs in a wide range of fields, including engineering, medicine, pharmacy, nursing, dentistry, law, management, and humanities. KLE University is one of the leading universities in India and is ranked among the top 100 universities by the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF). It is also accredited with an A+ grade by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC).

    ReplyDelete
  148. "espn.com/activate tv code" is a web address where users can enter a unique code to activate ESPN on their television or streaming device. This activation process typically allows users to access ESPN content on their chosen platform.

    ReplyDelete
  149. I found the post to be good. The shared information are greatly appreciated
    water delivery dubai

    ReplyDelete